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Fall 2023: Classes meet M W F 11:15am - 12:05pm in Kochel 77.

Schedule: Fall 2023

DIGIT 110: Lionpath class number: 6053. This course fulfills a core course requirement for the Digital Media, Arts, and Technology (DIGIT) major at Penn State.


Dr. Elisa Beshero-Bondar (Dr. B), Professor of Digital Humanities and Program Chair of DIGIT.

Text Encoding: Course Description

This course teaches you the art and science of archiving documents digitally using text encoding and markup. You will learn about the history and contexts of markup technologies, with their heritage in hand-written editorial markup. And you will learn about the ways in which markup can form communities of practice with shared interests in conservation, curation, and transmutation of texts. We will talk about documents, data, the materials they are prepared on, as well as metadata and data. We will explore some complicated questions about what a text really is, and what kinds of things it can become. We will be adventurous in exploring these questions, and we will also be practicing with markup and what we can build with it.

Text encoding, otherwise known as markup technology, sits on the border between humanities and computer science. Markup is writerly and editorial, and the technologies we use to process it, guide it, pull patterns from it are computational, meant to be an accessible entry point to programming. You will learn some programming associated with textual studies in this course. Our guiding principle in developing assignments and working with you is that the best way for you to learn and succeed is through regular practice as you hone your skills. Our goal is not to make you expert programmers (as I am far from that myself). Instead, I want you to learn how to apply coding technologies for your own purposes, how to track down answers to questions, how to ask for help, and how to find answers to questions by searching and experimenting. In designing a digital project, you will gain skills in thinking algorithmically (step-by-step) through problems to find good solutions.

Learning to Code: Our Context

You do not need any background at all with computer programming or web development to succeed in this course. We teach practical programming as a foundational skill (like reading, writing, and arithmetic) that all students should experience regardless of major or background. We also teach it in the writerly context of clear communication and documentation, which helps to build communities and connect projects over long periods of time.

Learning Objectives:

Optional Textbook and Other Class Resources

Other resources: Project Guidelines and Past Student Projects

Explanatory Guides and Exercises: Complete List

Class Web Resources:


Homework assignments (30%):

To keep up with this class, you must work on exercises regularly. Each day will involve some small assignment, to prepare you for the next of class, and to help you to build your course project. Homework is time-sensitive and due before class begins. Therefore, points are awarded based on engagement with the assignment and timeliness of completion:

  • If the homework is completed before class and demonstrates thoughtful engagement, it is awarded a full 3 points.
  • If it is completed by the end of the day after reviewed in class, it can earn no more than 2 points.
  • If completed within the week assigned or before a test on the unit in which it is assignned, it can be worth a maximum of 1 point.
  • Unless a special arrangement has been made with me, homework submitted after the test for its unit is worth no points, though you may wish to complete it to review a concept or method for work on a project.
  • The homework portion of the course grade reflects the percentage of work completed in a timely manner with some flexibility. If you complete 90% of the homework on time, you will receive an A in this portion of the course grade. Homework does not have to be perfect to be awarded full credit.
  • Students are not eligible to join a project team (see Project portion of the grade) if they have not completed a majority of the homework when the class forms project teams.

About homework assignments: Coding and project review exercises in this course are about your active learning, and not—as in other courses—a way of testing whether you have already learned something we covered in class or in an assigned reading. You may often need to look up how to do something that you don’t already know how to do. Often there will be multiple ways of accomplishing the task and I am not simply looking for you to do things perfectly in just one way. Instead, I am looking for signs of your active learning process as you take on a challenge. Documenting problems is key to learning, and sometimes just writing out what you are trying to do helps lead you to a solution! There may be times when you don’t get the result you want in the homework, and that is to be expected! In those cases you can still get full credit for the assignment if you’ve made a serious attempt and if you submit, along with your code, a description of what else you tried, what results you expected, what results you got, and what you think went wrong. Getting stuck is part of the learning process. You will see me get stuck sometimes, and I will need your eyes to help me fix something! As long as you’ve described your understanding of the problem and your attempts to resolve it on your own, you will do well: documentation of how you get stuck is key. One of our goals is to form a supportive coding community in this class, so we are comfortable with unsticking each other.

I may ask you to redo an assignment for partial credit. If you are asked to redo an assignment it is considered incomplete or problematic. If you resubmit a redo to correct a serious problem, you will likely (eventually) receive full credit for the assignment. I will post comments for feedback and learning purposes and you will find these comments on Canvas, sometimes in your coded homework file. If you have not engaged with the assignment adequately (whether that means solving the tasks or discussing the coding obstacles you encountered and how you dealt with them), I may ask you to meet with me to review the issues and then complete a followup (redo) task in order to receive credit. For assignments with posted solutions, I will invite you to review the posted solution on GitHub and comment on it (we will show you how to do this) to address something you learned from the solution or did in a different way. For some assignments where we review posted solutions together in class, we will write back to you with individual comments only if your specific submission raises an issue that we don’t address elsewhere. When much of the class is stuck on something, we will go over assignments together in class, too. If I don’t return your assignment, that means that I found nothing to add to our posted solution. In those cases, if you have any questions about your work after reading the posted solution or reviewing our class discussion, please ask.

Presence and Connection: In Class and Virtual (10%):

This portion of your grade reflects your engagement in in-class actvities and in discussions and informal work with me and your peers in virtual messaging mediums via GitHub and Slack. This portion of the grade considers your regular presence for in-class activities as well as your connection with the class in online environments. Coding and programming in real life is a social activity. Professionals in the Real World aren’t know-it-all experts who work alone! Instead they are tuned in to discussion boards and they regularly ask and answer questions to stay sharp and to learn from their community. In this class, we want you to work together and talk to each other and your instructors as your community resource, and the Presence and Connection category of the grade reflects that expectation. Earn an A in this category by participating in class discussion assignments, regularly asking questions, making suggestions, or sharing helpful resources you’ve found.

Discussion posts: Throughout the course, I will assign discussion posts on Canvas, Slack, or our class GitHub site in which you will respond to online readings or evaluate web resources. Your posting should do more than summarize the article or site (which you could just do by skimming or reading the first paragraph), but should demonstrate a thoughtful reflection on specific ideas and issues. When evaluating a web resource, don’t simply praise or condemn it without going into details about why a key component is effective or poorly designed. Good posts demonstrate care and reflection, and you may choose to respond to the overarching ideas of a piece, or to selected details of specific interest.

GitHub and Slack: Early in the course, I will ask the class to join a Slack chat for DIGIT students.If you have a question about an assignment, try reaching out to your peers on Slack first, and think of this as a way to earn credit toward Presence and Connection. Others may have the same question and answers are best shared! (Of course you may e-mail me, but I may respond by asking that you take a question to your peers first. Also, the Slack group includes students from multiple DIGIT courses and our DIGIT tutors, who who may be able to help more quickly than I can by myself!

Tests (30%):

As scheduled throughout the course there will be a few (three or four) tests on the concepts and various kinds of markup technologies we are learning in the course, and we will drop the lowest grade. All will be take-home or taken online in between classes. They are open-book, open notes, but they must be completed individually and are designed to demonstrate that you have learned from the class material, coding assignments, and posted solutions. Tests may resemble homework assignments, but unlike homework exercises, these are given letter grades. These are given grades because they are evaluative and involve demonstrating what you have learned after we have finished a coding unit.

Project (30%):

Part of the course grade is based on your work in a team-based semester project to construct a digital archive on the web. The project will apply what you learn in homework and tests. Therefore, we have established requirements for initiating team semester projects: If you have not been making satisfactory progress in homework and tests, you will not be permitted to join a project team. It is possible to pass the course with a "C" or "D" without joining a project, though a "D" grade will not count toward the major in Digital Media, Arts, and Technology.

Working on the semester project will require you to share and document your markup, as well as experiment with processing markup to investigate document data and visualize it on the web. Project work will be scheduled with paced milestone due dates throughout the semester to give you experience with a design project workflow.

Grading Scale:

Grades for the course are calcuated and posted on Canvas, and follow this standard scale: A: 93-100%, A-: 90-92%, B+: 87-89%, B: 83-86%, B-: 80-82%, C+: 77-79%, C: 70-76%, D: 60-69%, F: 59% and below. In taking the course on a pass-fail basis, students must earn a C to receive Satisfactory (passing) credit.

Course Policies:

Each day we are covering material that builds on earlier material and assignments, so your success depends upon regular attendance and completing each assignment on time.

Due dates and why we need them:

Your daily homework for this course is time-sensitive! Coding assignments, response posts, and other homework exercises must be uploaded to Canvas (or GitHub or our web server as specified), by the due date and time indicated on the class schedule. Homework assignments will be posted online to our class website and linked from our schedule, so students who miss class are nevertheless expected to consult the schedule and submit assignments on time. Because we post and share answers to homework exercises after submission deadlines, we will usually not accept late homework submissions.

Exam Policy:

Exams (tests) in this class are time sensitive. I can give extra time as needed to support an accommodation request. However, because I will be posting solutions to tests and discussing them in class, I do not allow people to write tests after the solutions are posted. I will drop your lowest test score for the class, so that you may miss one exam without penalty.

Attendance and Classroom Courtesy:

Attendance is about connecting and being part of our class community of coders. I expect your active presence and interaction with me and your classmates this semester, because we need to rely on each other in the classroom and online in our coding environemnts to learn and develop projects.

This class is fast-paced and requires that we all be making the best use we can of our in-person class sessions. Arriving late and leaving early disrupts the important collective mental activity of class. So does in-class texting and checking your cell phone. During classtime, I ask that you put mobile devices in Do Not Disturb mode. While class is in progress, talking disruptively, leaving the classroom, texting or using a cell phone or computer, reading a newspaper, or other distracting behavior will be actively discouraged.

When you must be absent from class

Please do not attend our physical class if you are not feeling healthy! This is not the semester to suffer through a fever or chills heroically to attend class in person. Stay home, report symptoms, get tested. This applies to me as your professor as well as to you!

If you need to miss classes for health reasons, it is your responsibility to make arrangements with me and your peers to catch up. We will always be connected in some way on line (via e-mail, Slack chat, and GitHub asynchronously) and we will find ways to keep you looped in.

Student (and Faculty) Health and Wellness Services

If any of us, you students or me, are feeling seriously ill this semester, please contact the Behrend Student Health & Wellness Center at 814-898-6217. Reporting in when you do not feel well is not shameful; it is responsible and important to protect yourself and our community.

Counseling Services

Many students at Penn State face personal challenges or have psychological needs that may interfere with their academic progress, social development, or emotional well being. Seek help! The university offers a variety of confidential services to help you through difficult times, including individual and group counseling, crisis intervention, consultations, online chats, and mental health screenings: see resources posted at These services are provided by staff who welcome all students and embrace a philosophy respectful of clients’ cultural and religious backgrounds, and sensitive to differences in race, ability, gender identity and sexual orientation. Get started from the Behrend Personal Counseling Site: or visit the Personal Counseling Office in Reed Union Bldg. Rm 1: 814-898-6504.


LionHELP is a smartphone application, available for both iOS and Android, that you can download if you or someone you know may be facing a mental health emergency. This app provides information about the signs of a mental health crisis, how to talk to someone who may be in crisis, a guide to help refer someone to the appropriate resource, and a full list of resources available on campus. The app can be downloaded free of charge, and there is absolutely no tracking of any information. Please note that LionHELP is not a diagnostic tool and should not take the place of services provided by a licensed mental health professional.


Penn State takes great pride to foster a diverse and inclusive environment for students, faculty, and staff. Acts of intolerance, discrimination, or harassment due to age, ancestry, color, disability, gender, gender identity, national origin, race, religious belief, sexual orientation, or veteran status are not tolerated and can be reported through Educational Equity via the Report Bias webpage (


Each student is issued a University email address ( upon admission. This email address may be used by the University for official communication with students. Students are expected to read email sent to this account on a regular basis. Failure to read and react to University communications in a timely manner does not absolve the student from knowing and complying with the content of the communications. The University provides an email forwarding service that allows students to read their email via other service providers (e.g., Hotmail, AOL, Yahoo). Students who choose to forward their email from their address to another address do so at their own risk. If email is lost as a result of forwarding, it does not absolve the student from responding to official communications sent to their University email address. To forward email sent to your University account, go to, log into your account, click on Edit Forwarding Addresses, and follow the instructions on the page. Be sure to log out of your account when you have finished.

Academic Integrity

Penn State puts a very high value on academic integrity, and violations are not tolerated. Academic integrity is the pursuit of scholarly activity in an open, honest and responsible manner. Academic integrity is a basic guiding principle for all academic activity, and all members of the University community are expected to act in accordance with this principle. Consistent with this expectation, the University’s Code of Conduct states that all students should act with personal integrity; respect other students’ dignity, rights and property; and help create and maintain an environment in which all can succeed through the fruits of their efforts. Academic integrity includes a commitment by all members of the University community not to engage in or tolerate acts of falsification, misrepresentation or deception. According to Penn State policy G-9: Academic Integrity, an academic integrity violation is an intentional, unintentional, or attempted violation of course or assessment policies to gain an academic advantage or to advantage or disadvantage another student academically. (Senate Policy 49-20 and G-9 Procedures (found at Any violation of academic integrity will receive academic and possibly disciplinary sanctions, including the possible awarding of an XF grade which is recorded on the transcript and states that failure of the course was due to an act of academic dishonesty. All acts of academic dishonesty are recorded so repeat offenders can be sanctioned accordingly. More information on academic integrity can be found at:

Students facing allegations of academic misconduct may not drop/withdraw from the affected course unless they are cleared of wrongdoing (see G-9: Academic Integrity). Attempted drops will be prevented or reversed, and students will be expected to complete course work and meet course deadlines. Students who are found responsible for academic integrity violations face academic outcomes, which can be severe, and put themselves at jeopardy for other outcomes which may include ineligibility for Dean’s List, pass/fail elections, and grade forgiveness. Students may also face consequences from their home/major program and/or The Schreyer Honors College.

Academic Integrity and Use of AI Text Generative Technology

Here is Penn State’s recommended policy on academic integrity and generative technology: If your instructor allows you to use ideas, images, or word phrases created by another person or by generative technology, such as ChatGPT, you must identify their source. You may not submit false or fabricated information or use the same academic work for credit in multiple courses. Students with questions about academic integrity should ask their instructor before submitting work.

Here is how we will approach work with AI and generative technology in this class: Sometimes we will experiment with it, and I will specifically ask you to try something with AI. When I do that, there will always be something more that I ask you to do to improve, repair, reflect on the output and use it in your building process. I will expect you to explain and document your process: what you are doing with the AI. If your method of preparing an assignment involves chat-generative AI, include a link to the chat transcript in your assignment when you submit it.

Source Citation, Plagiarism, and Coding

One goal of our course is to reflect on how best to cite sources in digital contexts. We will consider how and why such citations differ from documenting printed texts. We will also consider the ease and frequency with which digital texts and graphics are plagiarized on the Worldwide Web, and discuss how the omission of source citations detracts from the authority of a digital information resource. We expect you to practice mindful source citation including when you have engaged with artificial intelligence models. Failing to document your sources constitutes plagiarism and will have very serious consequences.

Representing the voice of another individual as your own voice constitutes plagiarism, however generous that person may be in helping you with an assignment. Turning in an assignment generated collectively under the name of a single individual is considered plagiarism. When instructed to collaborate on a project, project collaborators share collective authorship and should identify themselves directly as a team. To avoid plagiarism, cite your sources whenever you quote, paraphrase, or summarize material, or use digital images from any outside source (including generative AI, websites, articles, books, course readings, Courseweb or GitHub postings, or someone else’s notes). When using the “copy” and “paste” features as you read and research, be sure that you are carefully marking that these passages are unprocessed from their source, so that you know to process it later. Forgetting to do so not only produces sloppy work but (whether you intended it or not) results in a false representation. As long as you make a good faith and clear effort to cite your sources, you will not be faulted for plagiarism, but your work will be penalized if citations are inaccurate, unclear, or lack important information.

That said, the coding and digital development we do encourages collaboration, and for that reason we adopt our colleague David Birnbaum's Collaboration policy, since his course is very similar to ours. This policy specifies that students identify collaborators in a comment on submitted asignments and take care on projects that all students contribute equally (and no student is contributing excessively more than what everyone else has done). When joining a group homework session, always work on the assignment by yourself first so you can be an equal participant, and write up the assignment by yourself, after the session is over so you take care not to copy from the other students. While we want you to consult with each other, you are responsible for doing all your writing and coding by yourself, using your own words.

Disability Services:

This course could pose certain issues related to physical abilities. Please talk to me if you need help navigating the course or accessing our resources. In the case of documented disabilities, students must meet with the instructor to discuss their specific accommodations. In order to receive consideration for reasonable accommodations, you must contact the appropriate disability services office at the campus where you are officially enrolled, participate in an intake interview, and provide documentation: See documentation guidelines ( If the documentation supports your request for reasonable accommodations, your campus disability services office will provide you with an accommodation letter. Please share this letter with your instructors and discuss the accommodations with them as early as possible. You must follow this process for every semester that you request accommodations. Penn State Behrend’s Disability Services Coordinator is Amy James (

Career Services

Career Services prepares Penn State students to enter the workforce or graduate school through a variety of services. Career professionals will assist with resume and cover letter reviews, internship and job searches, interview prep and mock interviews, career fair prep, development of career competencies, and graduate school prep. Be sure to utilize Career Services for all of your career endeavors, start planning your career early! See the Career Services website at and/or stop into their office which is located in Reed 125. You may also schedule an appointment through Starfish or call 814-898-6164.

Projects that inspire us:

  • Obdurodon: where we learned what we can teach, and where we’re still learning.
  • The Programming Historian (full collection of tutorials)
  • Venice Time Machine: very ambitious, enormous project team of faculty and students to study and model a thousand years of Venice, digitizing "kilometers of archives."
  • Map of Early Modern London
  • Lord Byron and His Times: The very thoughtful stylistic design of this important project reproduces the style of nineteenth-century print and layout. The content makes many rare materials about Lord Byron’s social network searchable and connected to the web of linked open data.
  • The Shelley-Godwin Archive: digitizes the manuscripts of Percy and Mary Shelley, and Mary Shelley’s parents, William Godwin and Mary Wollstonecraft—manuscripts often written in multiple hands. Provides an important study of the Frankenstein notebooks to demonstrate how much of a role Percy Shelley played in the writing of Frankenstein. The archive provides a good model of the use of TEI for manuscript encoding and of complex and multiple visualizations of manuscript texts.
  • Voyant Tools: a text visualization, analysis, and play tool
  • Clay Shirky on Love, Internet Style (9 minutes of Youtube inspiration: on what lasts, and why community matters in our digital worlds.)

Previous versions of this course